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Pengertian dan Contoh-Contoh Mubtada’

Mubtada' dalam bahasa arab adalah isim marfu' (berhukum marfu') yang berada di awal kalimat. (Nahwu Wadhih hal : 36)

Pengertian dan Contoh-Contoh Mubtada’

السلام عليكم ورحمة الله و بركاته…

Ghoorib.com Pada artikel kali ini saya akan memaparkan tentang pengertian dan contoh-contoh mubtada’ dalam bahasa arab.

Artikel ini saya buat sebagai catatan pribadi sekaligus untuk mengingat dan mengulang kaji apa yang sudah saya pelajari.

 

Mudah-mudahan juga bermanfaat bagi teman-teman yang mau tau atau sudah lupa apa itu mubtada’. Oke mari kita bahas…

1. Pengertian Mubtada’

Berikut kita lihat beberapa pengertian mubtada’ dari beberapa referensi:
.المبتدأ هو : إسم مرفوع في اول الجملة

Mubtada’ dalam bahasa arab adalah isim marfu’ (berhukum marfu’) yang berada di awal kalimat.

(Nahwu Wadhih hal : 36)
المبتدأ هو : إسم مرفوع يقع في أول الجملة

Mubtada’ adalah isim marfu’ yang letaknya itu pada awal kalimat.

(Mulakhos hal : 27)
المبتدأ هو : الإسم المرفوع العارى عن العوامل اللفظية

Mubtada’ dalam bahasa Arab adalah sebuah isim yang marfu’ yang sunyi (asli/berdiri sendiri) daripada amil (pengubah hukum dalam nahwu) yang lafziyyah
(Kawakib Durriyyah hal : 76)

2. Contoh-Contoh Mubtada’

1. Contoh Mubtada’ dari Isim Mufrad

الكتابُ جديدٌ = Buku itu baru

محمدٌ نشيطٌ = Muhammad itu rajin

فاطمةُ جميلةٌ = Fatimah itu cantik

الفصلُ كبيرٌ = Kelas itu besar

الأستاذُ قائمٌ = Ustaz itu berdiri

الحديدُ قويٌ = Besi itu kuat

البستانُ وسيعٌ = kebun itu luas

القلمُ على المكتبِ = Pena itu di atas meja

الحذاءُ جديدٌ = Sepatu itu baru

المصباحُ منيرٌ = Lampu itu bercahaya

الغرفةُ صَغِيْرَةٌ = Ruangan itu kecil

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التلميذُ ماهرٌ = Murid itu pandai

 

2. Contoh Mubtada dari Jamak Muzakkar Salim

المسلمونَ مجتهدونَ = orang islam itu rajin

المجاهدونَ جالسونَ = Para pejihad itu duduk

اللاعبونَ في الميدانِ = Para pemain itu di lapangan

 

3. Macam-macam mubtada’ nakirah

Mubtada’ nakirah dalam ilmu nahwu dibagi menjadi 4 macam:
1. Mubtada’ nakirah yang didahului oleh huruf nafi. Contoh:
مَا رَجُلٌ قَائِمُ
لَا إِبْتِدَاءٌ لِمُبْتَدَءِ
2. Mubtada’ nakirah yang didahului oleh huruf istifham. Contoh:
هَلْ رَجُلٌ جَالِسٌ؟
هَلْ أُسْتَاذُ سَافِرٌ؟
3. Mubtada’ nakirah karena disifati. Contoh:
رَجُلٌ كَريْمٌ عِنْدَنَا
شَجَرَةٌ طَوِيْلَةٌ فِيْ البُسْتَانِ
4. Mubtada’ nakirah karena izafah. Contoh:
طَالِبُ إِحْسَانٍ وَافِقٌ

Contoh mubtada dari mutsanna

Mubtada’ mutsanna adalah kalimat mubtada yang terdiri dari isim mutsanna atau isim yang berarti dua. Contoh;
الرَجُلَانِ نَاشِطَانِ (dua lelaki itu rajin)
الكِتَابَانِ كَبِيْرَانِ (dua kitab itu besar)
البَيْتَانِ وَاسِعَانِ (dua rumah itu luas)
القَضِيَانِ يَحْكُمَانِ (dua hakim itu menghukum)
التَّجِرَانِ اَمِيْنَانِ ( dua saudagar itu terpercaya)
الوَلَدَانِ يَذْهَبَانِ إِلَى المُصَلَّى (dua anak itu pergi ke mushalla)

Contoh mubtada dari mutsanna muannats

البِنْتَانِ جَمِيْلَتَيْنِ (dua bocah perempuan itu cantik)
السَيَّرَتَانِ طَويْلَتَانِ (dua mobil itu panjang)
المُدَرِّسَتَانِ تَرْجِعَانِ (dua pengajar perempuan itu sedang pulang)
الشَّجَرَتَانِ مُثْمِرَتَانِ ( dua pohon itu berbuah)
الزَّهْرَتَانِ تُوَرِّدَانِ (dua bunga itu bermekaran)
الطَّلِبَتَانِ تَجْلِسَانِ فِيْ المَكْتَبَةِ (dua mahasiswi itu sedang duduk di perpustakaan)

Contoh mubtada dari muannats

Mubatada dari muannats adalah kalimat mubtada yang berasal dari isim yang muannats atau isim yang ditujukan kepada perempuan ataupun isim tersebut jamak, karena setiap jamak dianggap muannats. Contoh;
الكَوَاكِبُ مُنِيْرَةٌ (bitang-bintang itu bersinar)
الحَدِيْقَةُ مُمْتَلِئَةٌ بِالأزْهَرِ (kebun itu dipenuhi dengan bunga)
التِلْمِيْذَةُ مَاهِرَةٌ (murid perempuan itu pandai)
الوَرْدَةُ مَقْطُوْعَةٌ (bunga mawar itu telah dipetik)
الأكْوَابُ مُدْمَجَةٌ (gelas-gelas itu tersusun rapi)

Contoh mubatada dari jamak muannats salim

المُدَرِّسَاتُ يَرْجِعْنَ ( para pengajar perempuan pulang)
الطَّلِبَاتُ يَتَعَلَّمْنَ (para mahasiswi itu sedang belajar)
البَنَاتُ جَمٍيْلَةٌ (anak-anak perempuan itu cantik)
المُسْلِمَاتُ تَذْهَبْنَ إِلَى المَسْجِدِ (perempuan-perempuan muslim itu sedang menuju mesjid)


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